Voronezh region area is 52004 square kilometres. It is one third of the territory of all Central black soil regions. The region is the third largest in Central federal district after Tver and Kostroma regions. Its area also ranks fiftieth place among the 85 Russian Federation subjects. Voronezh region territory is more than territories of such European countries as Belgium, Denmark, Slovenia, Slovakia, the Netherlands, Montenegro, Switzerland etc.
The most extreme settlements in Voronezh region are: the village of Lomovo (Semiluki district) at a latitude of 52° 06' of north, the village of Koleshatovka (Kantemirovsky district) at a latitude of 49° 36' of north, the hamlet of Shiroky on the right bank of the river Olym (Nizhnedevitsky district) at a longitude of 38° 06' of east and the village of Vihlyaevka (Povorinsky district) at a longitude of 42°06' of east. The region territory from north to south is 2° 30' or 277,5 km, and it is 4° 00 or 352 km from west to east. Voronezh is 5 772 km from the equator and 2 710 km from the Greenwich prime meridian.
Maximum height above the sea level is situated near the village of Gubanovo and it is 259 metres. Minimum height above the sea level is 58 metres. It is located in the river Don on the border with Rostov region. The nearest settlement is Belaya Gorka-2 in Boguchar district.
In 2004 there were 1 197 watercourses with permanent and episodical current in Voronezh region. 379 of them were filled with water 12 months a year. 372 of them were partly drying. The total length of all the watercourses was 9 705 kilometres. During the period from 1964 to 2004 31 watercourses disappeared. Most of them were located in the basins of the following rivers: the Chornaya Kalitva, the Mamonovka, the Bogucharka and the Tolucheevka. The lengh of the lost river network was 510 кm during the period from 1964 to 2004. The longest river crossing the region is the river Don. It is 530 kilometres long and it crosses Voronezh region from the north to the south. The shortest river is the Chigorak flowing into the river Vorona in Borisoglebsk district. It is 11 kilometres long and its catchment basin is 222 square kilometres. In Voronezh region there are over 2 200 lakes. Most of them are situated in the plains of rivers. 2 557 man-made water bodies were registered in the region in tthe begining of 2007 (2351 ponds and 206 water storages). Their total water-surface area is 194 square kilometres and their water volume is 626 000 000 cubic metres. The largerst man-made water bodies are Voronezh water storage and the water cooling pond of New Voronezh atomic power plant.
Average annual air temperatures vary from 4,6° C (The town of Ertil) to 9° C (the town of Boguchar). Average air temperatures in January range from -10° C (the settlement of Gribanovsky) to -8,2° C (the town of Boguchar). Average air temperatures in July are from 21,8° C (the town of Boguchar) to 18,8° C (Krasny kordon, Shipov forest).
Absolute air temperature maximum 43° C was registered in the following towns: Boguchar, Borisoglebsk, Buturlinovka, Kalach, Pavlovsk, Rossosh. The minimal sums of average daily air temperatures are more than 15° C which equals 1 833° C were registered in the town of Ertil. Maximum sums of average daily temperatures above 15° C which equals 2 421 were registered in the town of Boguchar.
The first frost earliest dates in the air were registered in the town of Boguchar on 31st August and in Hrenovskoi bor (bor means pine forest) on 31st August in 1907. The first frost latest date in the air was recorded in the village of Saguny on 3d November 1900. The last frost earliest date in the air was registered in the town of Liski, the town of Boguchar and the village of Mitrofanovka in Kantemirovsky district on 23d March in 1951. The last frost latest date in the air was registered in Kamennaya step (step means steppe) on 5th June in 1930. The longest frost-free period, which lasted 207 days, was registered in the village of Mitrofanovka in Kantemirovsky district in 1950. The shortest frost-free period was registered in Hrenovskoi bor in 1907. It lasted 95 days. The earliest average date of stable frost coming is 25th November (the hamlet of Kalinovsky, Novohopersky district). The latest average date of stable frost coming is 8th December the town of Pavlovsk). The earliest average date of stable frost end is February 28th (the settlement of Kantemirovka). The longest time period of stable frost is 116 days (the hamlet of Kalinovsky, Novohopersky district). The shortest one is 85 days (the settlement of Kantemirovka).
Maximum one-time amount of precipitation (175 mm) was in the town of Boguchar on 14th August in 1945 .Maximum annual precipitation (933 mm) fell in the town of Buturlinovka in 1925. Minimum one (274mm) happened in the town of Pavlovsk in 1957. The number of rainy days in Voronezh city is 48 a year while in Kamennaya step it is 26 only. Maximum precipitation duration during the year is 1 491 hours in Voronezh, while in Boguchar it is 1 206. The earliest date of snow cover appearance is on 5th October (the village of Anna), the latest one is on 29 December (Pavlovsk, Boguchar). The latest date of snow cover disappearance is 30th of April (the village of Gremyachie, the town of Ostrogozhsk). The earliest date of steady snow cover formation is 23 October in Kamennaya step. The latest one is 11th October in the town of Liski and the village of Mitrofanovka. The earliest date of stable snow cover melting is 2nd February (the village of Gremyachie). The latest one is 25th April (the village of Saguny). Maximum snow depth during the winter in an open area is 48 cm (the village of Mitrofanovka), while minimum one is 5 cm (the town of Buturlinovka).
Sandy soil absolute maximum temperature in July is 69° C (the town of Kalach). Black soil absolute minimum temperature in January is -42° C (Voronezh, Borisoglebsk, Novohopersk).
Maximum frost penetration depth is 145 cm (the town of Liski). Minimum frost penetration depth is 20 cm (Voronezh). The earliest average date of the first ground frost in autumn is 15th September (the settlement of Anna). The earliest average date of the last ground frost in spring is 1st May (Borisoglebsk). The longest frost-free period is 154 days (the town of Rossosh).
Estimated heating season time is: 187 days in the town of Boguchar, 189 days in Rossosh, 191 days in Pavlovsk, 193 days in Kalach and in Liski, 194 days in the town of Bobrov and in the village of Mitrofanovka (Kantemirovsy district), 195 days in Novohopersk, 196 days in Borisoglebsk, 197 days in Voronezh and Buturlinovka, 199 days in the settlements of Gribanovsky and Anna, 200 days in the town of Ertil, 203 days in the settlement of Ramon.
The region's percentage of forest land is 10%. Forest fund area was 497 600 hectares on 1st January in 2008. Forest covered territory is 435 500 hectares. Estimated wood suplies in Voronezh region forests are 64 000 000 cubic metres.
There are 70 species of mammals, 290 species of birds (permanently building their nests and stopping during their flight), 56 species and subspecies of cyclostomata fish,10 species of amphibia and 9 species of reptiles.